Friday, December 6, 2019

Analysis of Sexual Harassment Essay Example For Students

Analysis of Sexual Harassment Essay Analysis of Sexual Harassment Essay Sexual harassment is one of the biggest problems facing our schools and businesses today. A week rarely goes by without a reminder of the pervasiveness of sexual harassment as a social problem. Sexual harassment is a growing problem in the government agencies, schools, and the corporations of the world; however, many corporations are now adopting new anti-harassment policies.(Conta) The definition of sexual harassment is any unwanted or inappropriate sexual attention. That includes touching, looks, comments, or gestures. A key part of sexual harassment is that it is one sided and unwanted. There is a great difference between sexual harassment and romance or friendship, since those are mutual feelings of two people. Often sexual harassment makes the victim feel guilty, but it is important for the victim to remember that it is not their fault, the fault lies totally on the person who is the harasser. Many times fear is involved in sexual harassment because it isnt about physical attraction, its about power. In fact, many sexual harassment incidents take place when one person is in a position of power over the other; or when a woman has an untraditional job such as a police officer, factory worker, business executive, or any other traditionally male job. Typical victims of harassment are young, single, college-educated, members of a minority racial or ethnic group (if male), in a trainee position (or office/ clerical positions if male), or have an immediate supervisor of the opposite sex. (Cq researcher 542) Presently, it is hard for courts and others to decide when sexual harassment has taken place because the definition of sexual harassment is much too broad. Clearing up the legal definition of sexual harassment would discourage and punish harassers and bring comfort to the victims. Here are some points to remember in deciding when sexual harassment takes place: Sexual harassment is one-sided and unwelcome. * It is about power and not attraction. * It happens over and over again. * It gets worse. * Subtle sexual behavior is sometimes socially acceptable, but some would consider it offensive and want it stopped. * Moderate sexual behavior is not socially acceptable, reasonable people would want it stopped. * Severe sexual behavior is never acceptable. (Swisher 28) Sexual harassment is a major problem in public schools, colleges, and universities. Surveys on college campuses show the number of respondents reporting to have been sexually harassed ranging from 40-70 percent. Only two percent of campus harassment cases involve a professor demanding sex in return for a good grade. Most cases involve male and female students. In public schools current sexual harassment definitions are inappropriate, since bad sexual behavior of todays children isnt sexual harassment, but it is a reflection of the vulgar, violent, and the sexually explicit nature of our media and culture. When little six-year-old children get suspended from school for kissing girls on the cheek, it is not an example of sexual harassment but of political correctness gone wild. Sexual harassment is still a big problem in schools and every school district in Washington now has an antiharassment policy. Junior high or middle school has the biggest problem with sexual harassment mainly because of their immaturity and out-of-control hormones. Says Viki Simmons of the YWCA. Many times in high school, students dont think anything about it when harassment happens, but schools are now cracking down on it. (Simmons interview) In the business world employers are now on notice that sexual harassment will no longer be tolerated in the workplace. Claims brought against alleged harassers include wrongful termination, invasion of privacy, violation of due process and free speech rights, defamation, and intentional infliction of emotional distress. Sexual harassment usually happens to women in low-paying jobs, or women that have to have a job in order to support themselves and children. If sexual harassment happens at work, write down a detailed description of what took place, so that it is well recorded and you dont have to think back to the incident. You should keep a note pad handy for this purpose, or write it on a napkin to help you remember. John Steinbeck's East of Eden - Religious Referenc Essay You should write: * When it happened * Where it happened * . it happened *

Friday, November 29, 2019

The Awakening The Birds, The Lovers And The Widow Essay Example For Students

The Awakening The Birds, The Lovers And The Widow Essay In the novel, The Awakening there are several motifs or images that assist in developing Edna Pontellier in her â€Å"awakening†, the birds, the lovers and the woman and black all prove to be important parts in this. It is significant that The Awakening opens with two caged birds. Throughout the novel, Edna feels that marriage enslaves her to an identity she for which she is not suited. The parrot is an expensive bird valued for its beauty. The mockingbird is fairly common and plain, and it is valued for the music it provides. These two birds function as metaphors for the position of women in late Victorian society. Women are valued for their physical appearance and the entertainment they can provide for the men in their lives. Like parrots, they are not expected to voice opinions of their own, but to repeat the opinions that social convention defines as proper or respectable.† The parrot shrieks Go away! Damnation!† These are the first lines of The Awakening, and they signal the essentially tragic nature of the novel. The parrot speaks French, a little Spanish, and a language which nobody understood.† Again, the parrot serves as a metaphor for Ednas predicament. As she becomes more defiant, she voices unconventional opinions about the sacred institutions of marriage, gender, and motherhood. Later in the novel, Mademoiselle uses wings as a metaphor for Ednas decision to defy social conventions. She warns Edna, â€Å"138† When she asks where Edna wants to soar, she means to ask Edna if she is sure that she can escape her gilded cage. If she fails, she will become one of the sad spectacles of the birds that fail. At the end of the novel, a bird with a broken wing sinks into the surf. The bird symbolizes Ednas failure to achieve the very goal that has driven her actions the entire time. In the end, Ednas freedom takes place in death. This is the choice that social convention allows her. We will write a custom essay on The Awakening The Birds, The Lovers And The Widow specifically for you for only $16.38 $13.9/page Order now Throughout the entire novel, the two young lovers are usually represented in conjunction with the woman in black. The two lovers are important symbols in The Awakening. Since the lovers always appear in conjunction with the woman in black, they foreshadow the eventual failure of Robert and Ednas love for one another. The contrast between the woman in black and the young lovers has a symbolic relationship to the love between Robert and Edna. The woman in black represents the logical conclusion to the conventional womans life if her husband dies first. However, there is no old couple to represent Robert and Ednas contented futures. Therefore, the lovers and the woman in black foreshadow the failure of their love. Furthermore, there is no figure to symbolize the old age of the rebellious woman represented in Edna. The absence of this figure foreshadows Ednas suicide at the end of the novel. It implies that Edna must choose between conforming to social conventions or disappearing from th e symbolic scene of the stages of a Victorian womans life. English Essays

Monday, November 25, 2019

Biography of Pedro Alonso Lopez, Monster of the Andes

Biography of Pedro Alonso Lopez, Monster of the Andes Pedro Alonzo Lopez (born October 8, 1948) was responsible for the murders of over 350 children, yet in 1998 he was set free despite his vows to kill again. Rumors regarding his whereabouts have swirled since the late 1990s. Fast Facts: Pedro Alonzo Lopez Known For: Serial killer, responsible for the brutal murders of over 350 childrenAlso Known As: Monster of the AndesBorn: October 8, 1948Parents: Midardo Reyes, Benilda Là ³pez De CastenedaNotable Quote: They Never Scream. They Expect Nothing. They Are Innocent. Early Years Lopez was born on October 8, 1948, in Tolima, Colombia, a time when the country was in political turmoil and crime was rampant. He was the seventh of 13 children born to a Colombian prostitute. When Lopez was eight, his mother caught him touching his sisters breast, and she kicked him out of the house forever. Trust Me, Trust Me Not Lopez became a beggar on the violent Colombian streets. He was soon approached by a man who sympathized with the boys situation and offered him a safe home and food to eat. Lopez, desperate and hungry, did not hesitate and went with the man. Instead of going to a comfortable home, he was taken to an abandoned building and repeatedly sodomized and returned to the street. During the attack, Lopez angrily vowed he would do the same to as many little girls that he could, a promise he later kept. After being raped by the pedophile, Lopez became paranoid of strangers, hiding during the day and scavenging for food at night. Within a year he left  Tolima  and wandered to the town of Bogota. An American couple reached out to him after feeling pity for the thin boy begging for food. They brought him to their home and enrolled him in a school for orphans, but when he was 12, a male teacher molested him. Shortly afterward, Lopez stole money and fled back into the streets. Prison Life Lopez, lacking in education and skill, survived on the streets by begging and committing petty thievery. His stealing advanced to car theft, and he was paid well when he sold the stolen cars to chop shops. He was arrested at the age of 18 for car theft and sent to prison. After a few days of being there, he was gang-raped by four prisoners. The anger and rage he experienced as a child rose inside him again, consuming him. He made another vow to himself; to never be violated again. Lopez got his revenge for the rape by killing three of the four men responsible. Authorities added two years to his sentence, deeming his actions as self-defense. During his incarceration, he had time to revisit his life, and a quiet rage toward his mother became monstrous. He also dealt with his sexual needs by browsing pornographic magazines. Between his prostitute mother and the pornography, Lopezs only knowledge of women fed his demented hatred for them. Release and Rearrest In 1978, Lopez was released from prison, moved to Peru, and began kidnapping and killing young Peruvian girls. He was caught by a group of Indians and tortured, buried up to his neck in the sand, but was later freed and deported to Ecuador. Experiencing near death did not influence his murderous ways and his killing of young girls continued. The increase of missing girls was noticed by authorities, but it was concluded that they had likely been kidnapped by child peddlers and sold as sex slaves. In April 1980, a flood exposed the bodies of four murdered children, and the Ecuadorian authorities realized there was a serial murderer at large. Shortly after the flood, Lopez was caught trying to abduct a young girl after the child’s mother intervened. The police could not get Lopez to cooperate, so they enlisted the help of a local priest, dressed him as a prisoner, and placed him in a cell with Lopez. The trick worked. Lopez was quick to share his brutal crimes with his new cellmate. Lopez Confesses When confronted by the police about the crimes he shared with his cellmate, Lopez broke down and confessed. His memory of his crimes was very clear, which was remarkable since he confessed to killing at least 110 children in Ecuador, more than 100 more in Colombia, and another 100 in Peru. Lopez admitted that he would walk the streets looking for innocent girls who he would lure away with the promise of gifts. Lopez often brought the girls to prepared graves, sometimes filled with the dead bodies of other girls he had killed. He would calm the child with soft reassuring words throughout the night. At sunrise he would rape and strangle them, satisfying his sick sexual needs as he watched their eyes fade as they died. He never killed at night because he could not see his victims eyes and felt, without that element, the murder was a waste. In Lopezs confession, he told of having tea parties and playing morbid games with the deceased children. He would prop them up in their graves and talk to them, convincing himself that his little friends liked the company. But when the dead children failed to answer, he would become bored and go off to find another victim. Monster of the Andes The police found his ghastly confession hard to believe, so Lopez agreed to take them to the graves of the children. More than 53 bodies were found, which was enough for the investigators to take him at his word. The public renamed him Monster of the Andes as more information about his crimes became known. For his crimes of raping, killing, and mutilating over 100 children, Lopez received a sentence of life in prison. Lopez never showed remorse for his crimes. In a prison interview with journalist Ron Laytner, he said if he ever got out of prison he would happily return to killing young children. The pleasure he received from his demented acts of murder overpowered any sense of right from wrong, and he admittedly looked forward to the opportunity to wrap his hands around the throat of his next child. Second Release No one was concerned that Lopez would have the opportunity to kill again. If paroled from the prison in Ecuador, he would still have to stand trial for his murders in Colombia and Peru. But after 20 years of solitary confinement, in the summer of 1998, it is said that Lopez was taken in the middle of the night to the Colombia border and released. Neither Colombia or Peru had the money to bring the madman to justice. Whereabouts Unknown Whatever happened to The Monster of the Andes is unknown. Many suspect and hope that one of the many bounties offered for his death eventually paid off and that he is dead. If Lopez has escaped his enemies and is still alive, there is little doubt that he has returned to his old ways. Sources Pearson, Nick. â€Å"Worlds Second Worst Serial Killer Walked Free from Prison.†Ã‚  9News Breaking News, 9News, 5 Dec. 2018.Serena, Katie. â€Å"Serial Killer Who Murdered 300 People Was Released From Jail, And No One Knows Where He Is.†Ã‚  All Thats Interesting, 30 Nov. 2018.â€Å"The Monster Of The Andes: South American Serial Killer Pedro Lopez.†Ã‚  Did You Know?, 17 July 2017.

Thursday, November 21, 2019

Sustainability framework on Apple and Samsung Essay

Sustainability framework on Apple and Samsung - Essay Example Recognition of organizations embracing environment sustainable frameworks is because climate change has become a significant issue in the society (Hart, 1997). A sustainable framework consists of Clean technology, sustainability vision, Pollution prevention and Product Stewardship (Hart, 1997). This paper will analyze two companies in the same industry in regards to their efforts to reduce environmental pollution. The analysis will be on Apple and Samsung companies. In addition, the paper will compare the sustainability framework suggested by Hart to the framework implemented by these two companies. Samsung has been viewed as a leader in this particular industry. Since the creation of Samsung, a lot has been put in place to reduce environmental pollution. Samsung is a telecommunications company with a variety of products on its brand. Its major products are mobile phones, computers and other electronics. The company has a significant global market with target market across the globe. 70 % of all nations across the globe boast of at least one major Samsung outlet (Magureanu, 2013). For this reason, the production level of the business entity is significant considering the level of demand on its products. With a large production level, the levels of emissions in the practice are also high. For this reason, this organization has set strategies to reduce their emissions to the environment. This is the ability of an organization to use technology that is environmental friendly. In addition, an organization should be able to develop approaches to technology that are environmental friendly. Samsung is developing technology that considers suitability to the environment (Magureanu, 2013). Comparing old and new products by Samsung, there are significant differences in the hazardous nature of the product. In an argument by Hart (1997) Samsung products are less radioactive even when

Wednesday, November 20, 2019

Are virtual organisations Multinational Enterprises (MNE) Assignment

Are virtual organisations Multinational Enterprises (MNE) - Assignment Example According to Preston (n.d), there are four key characteristics of virtual organizations as a process. Virtual organisations involve developing relationships with a wide range of partners each having a core competence that complements the others. It capitalises on the ability of telecommunications technology to overcome distance and time related problems. Furthermore, it involves trust between parties. Virtual organisations are also motivated by specific opportunities. As soon as these opportunities are exploited enterprises move on to form new partnerships and alliances. 2.0 Description of MNEs A multinational enterprise (MNE) or corporation (MNC) is an entity that operates in more than one tax jurisdiction whether as a single tax payer entity or as a group of such entities (Fernandez and Pope 2002). MNEs have their headquarters in one country (the parent/home country) and operate subsidiaries in several other countries known as host countries. There are a number of enterprises world wide that operate in this way. MNEs continue to grow and expand their operations because of WTO trade rules which facilitate globalisation as well as the growth of electronic commerce and information technology. Some MNEs have budgets that are larger than some countries and this indicates the extent of their power and influence as it relates to the setting of trade rules and regulations by international bodies. Multinational enterprises have many dimensions to them and can be viewed from several perspectives. These dimensions include and are not limited to management, ownership, strategy and structure. In terms of ownership, it may be argued that an enterprise is multinational if it is owned by nationals of more than one country. Companies that fit this particular criterion include Shell and Unilever which is owned by both British and Dutch interests. Many multinational enterprises do not meet this test as most of them originated in one country. In terms of the management criterion the managers are from different nationalities according to the countries in which they operate. However, as a starting point most multinational enterprises use persons from their home country to lead the management team in the initial stages of their operations in host countries. In terms of strategy, multinational enterprises seek to maximise their profits globally by entering new markets. The structure of these companies is such that the head office which is located in the home country controls the operations of the subsidiaries and assists in the direction and coordination of their activities. According to Moran (2007) MNE investments in the developing world occurs in four distinct forms. They are Foreign Direct Investment (FDI) in extractive industries, FDI in infrastructure, FDI in manufacturing and assembly, and FDI in services. However, multinationals operate in not just developing countries but also developed countries. In addition to FDIs they also provide licenses and mana gement agreements in the fast food and hotel sectors. Therefore, FDI and licensing are the two ways in which MNEs

Monday, November 18, 2019

Maths and Excel exercise Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 750 words

Maths and Excel exercise - Essay Example The horizontal dotted line indicates that the blue curve and the green curve have the same maximum. The vertical dotted lines indicate the maxima for the three curves, respectively. g) The weight of the heads of household appears to be normally distributed. Wages however are extremely skewed, resulting in many households with low wages and a few with high wages. The education level is a symmetric, discrete distribution, with both highly educated and less educated heads of households being rare. Since weight is the only symmetric distributed variable in the table, only in its case are the sample mean and median close to each other. Another indication that weight is indeed normally distributed is the proximity of the actual percentages of weights falling within the three given intervals to the empirical percentages. This is because the empirical percentages are calculated assuming normality of the data. An interesting observation is that the size of the 95% confidence interval for clothing and recreational expenses is actually much higher than that of more basic expenses such as food and housing. It is also interesting to note that clothing and recreational expen ses are more tightly correlated with net income than food and household expense are, as indicated by the marginally higher correlation coefficient of TOTEXP2 with FINC than TOTEXP1 with FINC. ... TOTEXP2 10.82 109.38 Note: 95% Confidence Interval has been calculated for the left tail, since all 3 variables show skewed distributions. e) Correlation coefficient r = 0.9927 Correlation coefficient r = 0.9979 f) The regression equation for TOTEXP1 Vs FINC is y = .59x + 1.5, while the regression equation for TOTEXP2 Vs FINC is y = .16x + .088 g) The weight of the heads of household appears to be normally distributed. Wages however are extremely skewed, resulting in many households with low wages and a few with high wages. The education level is a symmetric, discrete distribution, with both highly educated and less educated heads of households being rare. Since weight is the only symmetric distributed variable in the table, only in its case are the sample mean and median close to each other. Another indication that weight is indeed normally distributed is the proximity of the actual percentages of weights falling within the three given intervals to the empirical percentages. This is because the empirical percentages are calculated assuming normality of the data. An interesting observation is that the size of the 95% confidence interval for clothing and recreational expenses is actually much higher than that of more basic expenses such as food and housing. It is also interesting to note that clothing and recreational expens es are more tightly correlated with net income than food and household expense are, as indicated by the marginally higher correlation coefficient of TOTEXP2 with FINC than TOTEXP1 with FINC. One possible interpretation is that spending on less basic needs is more constrained by income than spending on more basic needs

Saturday, November 16, 2019

Effects of Different Diets on the Body and Brain

Effects of Different Diets on the Body and Brain Foods containing Lipids, Proteins and Carbohydrates provide the energy needed by the body. These nutrients are broken down and changed into fuel which provides the energy enabling the body to function. Taking a vitamin may be beneficial, but will not increase energy levels. These nutrients are termed macronutrients, basically meaning that large amounts of them are needed to sustain healthy functioning of the body.  (Thompson JL, Manore MM, Vaughan LA, 2008) Carbohydrates, or carbs, as they are referred to these days, are not all the same, they may be similar, but there are differences. Carbohydrates are a series of chemical compounds, they are composed of carbon, the carbo, oxygen and hydrogen in equal proportion to water, the hydrate. Simple carbohydrates are sugars; complex carbohydrates are starches and fibres. Carbohydrates can be quickly broken down into sugar (glucose) by the body and used for energy; potatoes, bread and pasta are high in carbohydrates.  (Grosvenor MB, Smollen LA, 2006, p 117) Lipids or fats as they are more commonly known, as well as providing energy, give our food taste, aroma and texture. Fat can be obvious in our food but much of it is invisible and less considered as a source of fat. Fat can determine the healthiness or otherwise of our diet and there are many different types. Fats in our bodies, called triglycerides, are formed when three fatty acids are connected to a glycerol molecule. A chain of carbon with an acid group at the end forms a fatty acid. The term saturated fat is used to describe fats saturated with hydrogen; they are normally solid at room temperature and mainly come from animal fats. Trans-fatty acids on the other hand are unsaturated, but crucially the alignment of the hydrogen atom makes it more akin to saturated fat. The necessary lubrication for the body is provided by lipids; they also provide insulation to shock and help to keep the bodies temperature stable. They also form part of the membrane structure of cells and help wit h synthesise eicosanoid molecules and hormones. Lipids are a concentrated form of energy, ready for immediate use but can also be stored for use later. Foods high in fat include meat, eggs and dairy products. It should be remembered that the body needs fat and that foods high in saturated fat, trans-fatty acids and cholesterol increase the risk of heart disease, whilst those foods high in omega-6 and omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids reduce the risk of heart disease.  (Grosvenor MB, Smollen LA, 2006, p 152) Protein comes from both animal and plant sources. More prosperous populations usually consume more animal protein sources. These tend to be higher in iron, zinc and calcium as well as saturated fats and cholesterol. Plant sources of protein are higher in unsaturated, fat, fibre and phytochemicals (chemical compounds found in plants, beneficial to the body) the building blocks of proteins are amino acids. Some of these amino acids which the body cant produce in sufficient quantities are referred to as essential amino acids and are therefore required to be part of a healthy diet. Chains of amino acids form different proteins and the shape of these proteins dictate their purpose. Amino acids from both the body and the diet are utilised by the cells to react with proteins as instructed by DNA. Amino acids are also used to interact with glucose and other non-protein molecules to provide energy. The need for protein is calculated by looking at the consumption of nitrogen in dietary protein and the protein waste excreted by the body. The RDA (Recommended Daily Allowance) of protein for a healthy adult is 0.8 grams per kilo gram of body weight. The requirement can increase depending on the state of the body, for instance pregnancy, breast feeding a baby, growth, physical activity, physical injury or illness. It is recommended that 10 to 35% of calories are taken from protein to maintain a healthy diet. Foods high in protein include chicken, beef, salmon and legumes. Vitamins are vital to our efficient physiologic processes; they are organic compounds that are important in the health of our muscles and bones. They also boost the immune system enabling us to avoid illness and disease. They also have a beneficial effect on vision and efficacy of blood. Vitamins do not have any energy of any calorific value; they do however have a vital part to play in how the body uses lipids, carbohydrates and proteins. The body only needs small amounts of vitamins (and minerals) and are denoted as micronutrients. Their effectiveness are easily reduce by exposure to light, heat, air and over-cooking. They are destroyed in an alkaline environment. Vitamins are grouped by their ability to be water soluble or fat soluble, this characteristic determines how they are transported, absorbed and stored in our bodies. Most vitamins cannot be produced by the body and therefore need to be taken in our diet. Water and fat soluble vitamins are found in many varied foods. A nor mal balanced diet will provide all the vitamins needed by the body. Minerals do not contain carbon and are referred to as inorganic substances. Important minerals to health are iron, zinc, magnesium, calcium, potassium and sodium. They differ from vitamins and macronutrients in that digestion does not degrade or break them down nor are they destroyed by heat or light. Independent of their environment minerals maintain their structure, for example the calcium in milk is the same calcium in our bones and the sodium in household salt is the same sodium in our cells. Physiologically minerals are vital to many functions including the regulation of bodily fluids and the production of energy, they are essential in maintaining healthy blood and bones. They aid metabolism by riding the body of harmful by-products. They are ordered by the bodys need for them in our diet, and how much of them are found in the body. They are ordered into two categories, Major Minerals and Trace Minerals. Those minerals that our bodys need to consume a minimum of 100 mg per day a re termed Major Minerals and are found in the body in amounts of 5000 mg or more. Calcium, magnesium and phosphorus play a critical role in bone maintenance. Energy production is enhanced by magnesium and calcium boosts muscle efficiency. Chloride, potassium and sodium help in fluid balance, sulphur is seen as an active constituent of certain vitamins and amino acids. Major mineral sources are numerous and include meat, fresh fruit, dairy produce and nuts. Chromium, fluoride, iodine, selenium, magnesium, copper, zinc and iron are main trace minerals. They are called trace minerals because the body needs 100mg or less per day. Iron is deemed to be important in keeping blood healthy enhancing the amount of oxygen transported round the body. Reproductive health and cell growth and development are maintained by zinc whilst selenium, copper and magnesium are antioxidants controlling free radicals. Iodine is effective in the production of hormones which regulate body temperature as well a s metabolic rate and growth. Fluoride fights tooth decay and helps strengthen bones and the body needs chromium for the correct metabolism of fats and carbohydrates. Trace mineral sources are generally the same as major minerals. Water which plays a key role in our health is an inorganic substance providing support to all organs of the body enabling then to function correctly. It is consumed in various forms such as pure water, soup, juices, drinks and other liquids. It is also present in fruit and vegetables. Water intake must be adequate to maintain the balance of fluid in and out of our cells, helping the function healthy body temperature, muscle efficiency, nerve impulses, transport of nutrients and elimination of waste products. The chemical action and reaction and the physiological progressions in the body are hugely complex. They are all influenced and kept in harmony by all six of the above nutrients. This harmony is called homeostatis. Blood pressure and blood sugar level and hundreds of other considerations are kept in balance and constancy. The nutrients provide the conditions that result in homeostatis, water controlling body temperature by sweating when the body is hot. Proteins and lipids regulate the hormones which start and stop various body functions. Vitamins, proteins and minerals control chemical actions throughout the body. This balance, this equilibrium this harmony this homeostatis is health, any inability of the body to control imbalance, inequality or disharmony, is illness.  (Thompson JL, Manore MM, Vaughan LA, 2008) Effects of glucose on the brain The mitochondrial area of the brain is the engine room where brain power is centered. This brain power is fuelled by glucose which is supplied to the brain in the bloodstream. The brain cells needs a steady supply of glucose, the brain cannot store the glucose so an adequate supply is vital to the functioning of the brain, learning, concentrating and memory. The body obtains glucose from carbohydrates, fruit and vegetables, grains and legumes. (Very few animal foods are a source of carbohydrate, dairy products being the exception. Over supply of carbohydrates or sugar can restrict the brains use of glucose, resulting in a degraded brain function, although the brain activity needs a lot of energy.  ( Effects of a high protein diet Generally a high protein diet isnt harmful in the short term, up to four months at most, and can be effective in losing weight. However in the long term and in conjunction with a reduction or elimination of carbohydrates can result in various health difficulties Nutritional Deficiency. A lack of fibre can result in constipation even diverticulitis and cancers Heart Disease. A diet rich in protein, red meat and dairy for example can increase the risk of heart disease. Kidney Problems. A protein only diet can aggravate kidney problems causing difficulty in the kidney processing waste products of the metabolism of the protein. If a person wants to try to lose weight on a high protein low carbohydrate diet they should be advised to try it in the short term only, the protein chosen should be lean meat, fish, skinned chicken and low fat dairy production. Anyone with diabetes, liver or kidney disease or on long term medication should be advised against it and to at least speak to their doctor. ( Cellular respiration is a metabolic reaction where cells convert nutrients into energy with waste being a by-product. These reactions can be catabolic (production of energy by breaking down nutrient molecules) or anabolic (the consumption of energy and building of molecules) Cellular respiration is an important way for a cell to acquire energy enabling cellular regeneration  (Campbell, Reece, Urry, Cain, Wasserman, Minorsky and Jackson, 2008) Definitions of calories and energy Calories Heat or energy can be measured in calories. The definition of a calorie is the amount of heat it takes to raise the temperature of 1g of water by 1o C the converse is of course also true, a calorie is is the amount of heat 1g of water releases when it cools by 1o C. (Campbell, et al 2008). It is as well to note that the calories on food labels are in fact kilocalories. The joule (J) is also a unit of energy, with one joule being equal to 0.239 calories. One calorie is equal to 4.184 joules. Energy The definition of energy is that ability or capacity to alter things, particularly to do work against a resistive force. (Campbell et al, 2008) The statement calorie free energy drink is a contradiction in terms in that anything that has energy must have calories and of course vice versa. The label is therefore totally misleading  (Campbell et al 2008) Part 2 Metabolism and Detox Definitions of Obesity The medical definition of obesity is having a body mass index (BMI) of 30 or more. BMI is the ratio between height and weight and although it is widely used it is at best a rule of thumb In Scotland BMI is the guide used in primary care to say if a patient is obese or not. Its use has been criticised as being inaccurate and that other techniques give more useful indications of obesity: Body fat measurement using callipers Waist hip ratio Bioelectrical impedance Wrist measurement Water displacement The problem with these techniques is that they can be cumbersome, time consuming and expensive, whereas BMI can be read from a simple table. Overnourishment, overeating, consuming more food than the body needs for normal activity are the main causes of obesity but genes, physical activity and environment have a part to play as well.  (Thomson JL et al 2008) Set Point Theory The theory of Set Point intimates that a persons weight is restricted within confines pre-determined by the body. When a persons weight fluctuates, up or down, the body automatically compensates physiologically by altering the Basal Metabolic Rate (BMR). It appears that this is all part of the bodys blueprint/DNA in the maintenance of homeostatis. This goes to explain why dieters routinely fail to keep any weight loss after they stop dieting. Yes, if toxins are present in the bloodstream they can have a direct influence on where the set point is set. Metabolism and body size are related. Metabolic rate is roughly proportional to body mass. Homeostatis is also proportional to body mass, the larger the mass the wider the parameter that homeostatis works within.  (Campbell, et al, 2008) Changes to metabolism Metabolism is all the bodys chemical reactions, which have both anabolic and catabolic pathways, they husband the energy and material assets of the body. The conversion of food and drink into energy by the body is a function of metabolism. This complicated chemical process, the calories in the food and drink combine with oxygen to provide the body with the energy it needs. Even when the body is inactive the body stills consumes energy maintaining those instinctive functions such as, repairing cells, blood circulation, hormone production, body growth and breathing. The body therefore needs a certain number of calories is carry out these functions and is called the basal metabolic rate (BMR). Age, gender and body mass determine an individuals BMR Age. As the body ages, muscle mass decreases and fat becomes a higher component of body weight. This slows down calorific expenditure. Gender. Males generally have less body fat than females, muscle is greater in men than women as well. Body Mass. The larger the body mass, then the greater the calorific burn. Generally, if more calories are consumed than expended then the body will store the excess and result in weight gain. Of course set point theory, an individuals metabolism and predisposition to weight gain or loss comes into play. Energy needs for the bodys basic functions stay fairly consistent and arent easily changed. The basal metabolic rate accounts for about 60 to 75 per cent of the calories that are burnt every day.  (Grosvenor MB, Smolin LA, 2006) Effect of muscle growth on metabolism Yes, increasing muscles increases the bodys resting metabolism, which in turn consumes more calories. The larger the muscle the more cells, the more cells the more energy required. Muscle mass is increased by strength training  (Campbell, et al, 2008 Diurectics A diurectic is a drug that increases the excretion of accumulated water in the body. This can be beneficial in the treatment of certain illnesses, but can also have serious side effects. The diurectic effect of drugs and some herbal remedies can have a superficial effect on weight loss, as the body is predominately made of water any reduction gives an immediate loss in body weight. The serious side effect on the homeostatic fluid balance in the body, causing the kidneys to filter more water out of the blood resulting in dehydration and potassium loss, muscle pain, stomach ulcers, impotence and painful enlargement of the breast in men. (Campbell, et al, 2008) How toxins are cleansed from the body The body uses major systems to cleanse the body of toxins; they are the sweat glands, the digestive system, the urinary system and the liver. These systems remove more toxins than all other systems put together. Keeping these systems in good order (water is vital to them all) enables the body to prevent disease and illness. In this modern age we are all more and more at risk from the thousands of toxins in our environment ranging from, cleaning agents, pesticides, car exhausts, pollutants in the air we breathe and toxic compounds in everyday objects and materials. They are all chemically different, some are more toxic to the body than others, they can be breathed in, ingested, absorbed through the skin or cuts and abrasions they have even been shown to cross umbilical divide and enter the unborn child Toxic contamination can cause the production of body fat in the body, this is because the body tries to counteract the toxic substances by cleaning them from the organs of the body and storing them in the safer area of body fat, another example homeostatis. (Thomson JL et al 2008) Types of body image issues Mitchel is at risk of developing a body image problem, mainly by peer pressure and he should take seriously the advice given. Body image problems can lead to eating disorders with calamitous results, the two most common eating disorders are; Anorexia nervosa. The refusal or physiological inability to sustain body weight. Bulimia nervosa. Binge eating then vomiting, purging or overuse of laxatives. (Thomson JL et al 2008) Hormones and Homeostatis Sugar Sugar is one of the most common foods, it is also a simple carbohydrate, meaning that the body can process it very quickly into energy. Complex carbohydrates are slower to release the glucose our body uses for energy. When we eat sugar our blood sugar levels increase and we get an energy boost. Sugar is derived from carbohydrates.  (Youngson R 2000) Types of blood sugar diseases Blood transports sugar round the body to where it is required. The endocrine system controls hormone levels in the body these hormones affect many different functions in the body but as far as blood sugar levels are concerned, when blood sugar levels rise the endocrine system stimulate the pancreas to secrete insulin which reduces the sugar level to normal. Diabetes is caused when the pancreas cannot produce insulin resulting in blood sugar levels being unregulated. Consequently, the absence of insulin, muscle protein cannot be utilised resulting in muscle wastage, also sugar accumulates in the blood and the kidneys have to process it and excrete it, the sweet smell of a diabetics urine is a result of this, for the kidneys to excrete the sugar it needs large amounts of water, which give rise to two of the symptoms of diabetes, raging thirst and excessive urination. Hypoglycaemia is a medical condition indicated by lower than normal blood sugar levels, one of the most serious implications of hypoglycaemia is less than adequate supply of glucose to the brain which impairs body function, from feeling unwell to seizures, unconsciousness and even brain damage. The ravages of too much or too little sugar in the blood can be very serious; therefore the body and its endocrine system are mechanisms to keep the body homeostatic, in balance, in kilter. Hypoglycaemia is most often a result of diabetic treatment going wrong. Ingestion of carbohydrates/sugar will raise the blood sugar level.  (Youngson R 2000) Types of hormones The hormonal glands in the body regulate appetite, these glands produce several appetite regulating hormones: Gherlin is a hormone which stimulates the appetite, whilst PYY another hormone in the digestive system, signals the brain when the body has had enough to eat, similarly, another hormone leptin, regulates appetite by causing the hypothalamus to suppress appetite. Leptin may also trigger the body to burn stored fat. Research is still on-going but who knows, maybe one day these hormones could be used in the treatment of obesity.  (Wadden TA and Stunkard AJ, 2002) Effect of restricting carbohydrates A diet restricting carbohydrates will reduce blood sugar level reducing the supply of glucose to the brain, which cannot store glucose, this sugar is used in by the brain in cell management. A scarcity of glucose to the brain would certainly cause headaches fatigue, the bodys homeostatic function may well cause carbohydrate cravings.  (Youngson R 2000)